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台北故宫博物院馆藏明清瓷花器
阅读量:更新日期:2018-04-10 09:29:30
花器包含“盆景”与“插花”两类器皿,中国传统的花器材质众多,铜、瓷、玉、石、玻璃、漆、木竹等,不一而足。形制则有瓶、盆、缸、碗、盘、桶、篮及挂瓶等,丰富多样。本文以台北故宫博物院藏明清瓷质花器为重点,分“盆景器”及“插花器”两部分欣赏,藉以呈现明清时期花器发展的特色。

盆景:将植物连根栽植在花器里,是一种有生命的活艺术;花盆被寓意为大地,依观想来形塑各类植栽,亦可添加湖石、人偶、虫鸟等配饰,营造具体而微的庭园大地景观,可观、可想、可神游,饶富意味。盆景器皿厚而重,多呈现广口、宽底、方、圆或多角的造形,有盆与托成套者,也有各类动物造形的盆景器皿。

插花:将花木剪裁插置在花器里,欣赏花木姿态之美。花材与花器的运用,取决于陈设空间之大小与功能。如陈设于大厅的“堂花”,须大型花器展现富丽花材;摆置书斋的“斋花”,需小而雅致。插花时还需思考固定花枝的方式,所以院藏花器经常搭配多孔的金属内胆,或制成多管形制。

盆景、插花除可单独摆设,亦可多件同列,也可结合其他质材的装饰物,透过花材、花器及装饰物的谐音转意,呈现如“玉堂富贵”、“事事如意”之类吉祥祈愿的花艺,感受古人装置艺术的手法。明清皇室花器中,以当代制造的瓷器或珐琅器为主,有时也选用铜、玉、陶瓷等古器物,改变其原有功能,化身为花器,呈现出古雅华丽的品味。

第一部分:盆景器

院藏明代的瓷器盆景,以青花、五彩、单色釉者居多。而红紫驳杂流宕的钧窑花盆,也常见于明代绘画中,盆与盆托成套出现,种植石菖蒲并饰以奇石,所以有“蒲石盆”之称。钧窑盆也常刻有清宫庭阁名称,成为该宫阙的养花器。清初景德镇御窑所制青花、五彩盆景器,釉彩精良,彩绘花鸟、山水,均精妙如画。慈禧太后喜爱的花器,具有“大雅斋”及“体和殿制”款,常绘制田园花卉与吉祥纹饰,别具特色。晚清民窑花器大量入宫,吉祥喜庆纹饰之外,人物、花鸟纹饰与当时风行的各画派风格相呼应。

 

天蓝渣斗式瓷盆

钧窑 明 十五世纪前

 

仿钧釉瓷天蓝花盆

清 雍正

 

粉彩瓷花卉银锭式盆

清 光绪 “大雅斋”款

 

粉彩瓷墨菊长方盆

清 光绪 “体和殿制”款

第二部分:插花器

明清时期插花器皿以瓶为主,常附金属内胆。当春冬时节水易结冻,以内胆隔离水与瓶,可防止瓶器崩裂。内胆盖面镂空,间隙用以固定花叶枝脚;清雍正年间造办处《活计档》所载,有胆盖镂圆形孔的“莲蓬式内胆”;有连蝙蝠、连螭龙等纹饰的“冰冽式内胆”等。通过绘画及带有内胆的插花器皿,可观察明、清两代瓶花的形式及花器的选择;而各种古代铜器、玉器用途的改变,仿古定、汝、官、哥窑及珐琅等花器的制作,可欣赏明清两代皇室生活的风雅与创新。

 

青花六连瓶

清 乾隆

 

玉镯形琮(附金属胆)

新石器晚期

 

三角云纹铜壶(附金属胆)

战国中期

 

冬青釉瓷菊瓣纹瓶

清 雍正

 

青花牡丹兽耳长颈瓶

明 万历

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